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#UK inflation falls to 5-year low

LONDON (AP) — U.K. authorities say inflation fell to its lowest point in five years, dropping to 1.2 percent in September as shoppers benefited from a supermarket price war and lower petrol prices.

The Office of National Statistics said Tuesday the rate dropped 0.3 percent, down from 1.5 percent in August. Food and nonalcoholic beverages fell by 1.4 percent year-on-year, the sharpest decline since June 2002.

The report will further ease pressure on the Bank of England to raise interest rates. The bank’s inflation target is 2 percent — and it’s been below this level for nine months.

Chris Williamson, the chief economist of Markit, says the benign outlook “could even add to calls for policymakers to do more to shore up the recovery amid signs that growth could fade in coming months.”

The Associated Press.

#Ikea kitchens help sell #insulation to Dutch – and #UK could be next

Dutch consortia Energiesprong could give zero carbon retrofits to social homes across England, using innovative wrap-around insulated panels, if EU funding is approved.

Dutch energiesprong (‘Energy Leap’) pilot project in Tilburg in the Netherlands.Dutch energiesprong (‘Energy Leap’) pilot project in Tilburg in the Netherlands. Photograph: Rogier Bos/Energiesprong

Arthur Neslen reporting,

More than 100,000 homes across the UK could be given a carbon-neutral retrofit by 2020 if the EU approves funding for a ground-breaking green social housing project this month.

The first pilot projects are due to start within a year on council estates and housing association properties in London, Birmingham and southern England and are set to save 1,950GWh of electricity.

The Energiesprong (Energy Leap) initiative involves completely wrapping houses with insulated panel-facades that snap on like Lego. Insulated roofs adorned with 24 high-efficiency solar panels each are fastened on top, while heat pumps, hot water storage tanks and ventilation units are stored in garden sheds.

On the Woonwaard housing estate near Amsterdam, tenants whose homes have already received the upgrade say that the final effect is like living inside a ‘tea cosy’.

“This new house is great,” former social worker Astrid Andre, 58,told the Guardian. “You can’t hear the traffic from outside anymore. It feels as if I’m living in a private home, rather than social housing. Before, the wind used to go through the house in winter. I have arthritis and when the weather was colder, it became worse. But my bones are better now, more supple.”

Former social worker Astrid Andre, who lives near Amsterdam, says that both noise and draft levels have improved since the retrofit.Former social worker Astrid Andre, who lives near Amsterdam, says that both noise and draft levels have improved since the retrofit. Photograph: Arthur Neslen for The Guardian

The programme has already won a contract from the Dutch government to provide a wave of 10-day makeovers to 111,000 homes on estates mostly built in the 1960s and 70s. It is now bidding for €10m (£787,671) from the EU’s Horizon 2020 money pot to extend the project to the UK and France.

Partners in the bid to bring the Dutch Energiesprong consortia to the UK include the Greater London Authority (GLA), the Department of Energy and Climate Change (Decc), The Housing Finance Corporation (THFC) and the National Federation of Housing Associations (NFHA).

“The Netherlands has a head start but the basic logic is the same,” said Jasper van den Munckhof, Energiesprong’s director. “If you have political will, government support, and a housing association sector that can put up a strong volume for conceptual development, then there is a profitable case for builders to step in.”

Materials used for wall isolation in renovated houses by Dutch Energiesprong in Arnhem.Materials used for wall isolation in renovated houses by Dutch Energiesprong in Arnhem. Photograph: Frank Hanswijk/Energiesprong

The deceptively simple idea behind the initiative has been to finance the roughly 300,000 mass-produced renovations from the estimated €18bn of savings from energy bills that they will make each year.

In the Netherlands, upfront capital comes from the WSW social bank, which has provided €6bn to underwrite government-backed 40-year loans to housing associations. These then charge tenants the same amount they had previously paid for rent and energy bills together, until the debt is repaid.

The prefabricated refurbishments come with a 40-year builders’ guarantee that covers the entire loan period, and a 5.25% return is guaranteed to participating housing associations.

But the renovations can only be done if all tenants in a block agree to it, and that spurred the invention of an unlikely environmental incentive: free bathrooms, fridges and Ikea kitchens, with electric cooking.

“Everyone has been talking about it since last December,” said Bianca Lakeman, a 32-year-old office worker and single mother on the Woonwaard estate. “They’re saying how the front facade is very modern but most of all they are talking about the beautiful Ikea kitchens.”

Tenants can choose the kitchen’s colour and design and, because the construction companies are contracted to provide maintenance for the next four decades, the new installations work out cheaper than the anticipated costs of servicing mid-20th century kitchens into the mid-21st century.

“When we started, there was a period where not everybody was keen,” said Marnette Vroegop, a concept developer for the Woonwaard housing association. “The main doubts were about whether it was realistic.”

Pierre Sponselee, director of Woonwaard housing association.Pierre Sponselee, director of Woonwaard housing association. Photograph: Arthur Neslen for The Guardian

“There is one block of six houses here and one person still says no,” Pierre Sponselee, the association’s director said. “The man had lived here only for a year and came from another house where he’d had a renovation and he didn’t want another one. It is a pity for the rest of the neighbours.”

Minor complaints from tenants about the refurbishments have included noise from garden shed installations and increased awareness of internal house sounds, as floorboards become proportionately louder when outside noises are muffled.

Bianca’s block is due to be renovated this month in the latest construction round on the estate that will see another 50 zero energy homes created. “I’m very excited about it because it can keep my cost of living under control and reduce the effects of climate change,” she said.

Around 40% of Europe’s carbon dioxide emissions come from heating and lighting in buildings and the EU has set a zero energy requirement for all new house builds by 2021. But these only make up around 1% of the continent’s housing stock and how to persuade the construction industry to renovate to new and untried standards had been a vexed question.

With support from the Dutch government, Energiesprong dangled the carrot of secured long-term contracts for a market of up to 2.3m homes, and then asked a depressed construction sector what solutions they could come up with.

Energiesprong renovated building in Groningen.Energiesprong renovated building in Groningen. Photograph: Rogier Bos/Energiesprong

The result was the beginnings of a reindustrialisation of the Dutch building sector, with construction companies taking 3D scans of houses to offer factory-produced refurbishments tailored to each house’s dimensions.

“We have to think like a manufacturer,” said Joost Nelis, the director of BAM, the Netherlands’ biggest construction company. “We want to shrink the garden power units like Apple did the iPad,” Nelis says.

The company is also experimenting with apartment blocks run on DC electricity, which increases solar panel efficiency by about 30%. Almost all buildings in the Netherlands run on AC, but few tower blocks have room for enough solar panels to generate electricity for more than five floors of homes.

While trade unions have enthusiastically signed up to Energiesprong, energy companies that use fossil fuels could lose out on the gathering transformation, according to Nelis. Tenants in places such as Woonwaard can already sell their excess electricity back to the grid and may one day be able to use electric cars to power their homes.

Ambitious though it is, Energiesprong says its programme of building renovations should be seen as a means to a low-carbon transformation of the building sector, rather than an end in itself.

Last week, a similar deal was signed with the Netherlands biggest mortgage banks, real estate surveyors and government, to take the project into the private sector too.

The Guardian – Environment.

British hostage John Cantlie ‘urges Government to talk to Isis’ | #JohnCantlie #ISIS

The Independent

Article appears after the MoD confirms that British soldiers would head to northern Iraq to help train Kurdish forces.

Kunal Dutta reporting,

The British hostage John Cantlie has appeared in an online article calling for the British Government to “open a channel and negotiate” with Isis.

It appeared hours after the Ministry of Defence (MoD) confirmed that a “specialist” team of British soldiers would head to northern Iraq to help train Kurdish forces fighting the Islamic militant group.

The article, published in the Isis online magazine Dabiq, coincided with a fourth propaganda video featuring the 43-year-old photojournalist. In it he claimed Isis was “dug in for the fight” and that it was “conceivable” that foreign jihadists may return to their home countries to launch attacks.

Britain has stepped up its attack on Isis in recent weeks, with news emerging over the weekend that British troops are close to the frontline of the fight between Isis and Kurdish fighters in Irbil.

The team of “non-combat army trainers” will provide training for “heavy machine guns that were gifted by the UK last month,” a Government spokeswoman said.

The development will inevitably draw criticism of “mission creep” with the move marking the first time British troops have been active on Iraqi soil since May 2011. The training group will join a small UK military reconnaissance team, which has already been on the ground for several weeks, with some 12 soldiers, from the 2nd Battalion the Yorkshire Regiment, understood to be involved.

Criticism over Western hostage policy has intensified since the murder of British hostages Alan Henning and David Haines and Americans Stephen Sotloff and James Foley. All four were cellmates of Mr Cantlie, the article reveals, adding that: “If our countries had just talked to the mujahidin, our chances of survival wouldn’t have been low at all.”

The US has the starkest position on hostage negotiation and considers ransom payment akin to funding terrorism – for which it will prosecute. The UK government does not formerly pay ransoms.

The Dabiq piece also cites Bowe Bergdahl, the US infantryman held by the Taliban for almost five years and freed in May in return for the release of five Afghans from Guantanamo Bay. “Our political leaders have the power, if they choose to change things,” it concludes, adding: “Just ask our government to talk. That’s all. Open a channel and negotiate with the Islamic State like the others did. If nothing is possible to agree on, then fine, but it cannot compromise policy to open a dialogue.”

The Foreign Office would not be drawn on a response. A spokesman said last night: “We are aware of the video and the article and are investigating their contents.”

The article also refers to a failed rescue mission by elite US Special Forces earlier this summer. It reads: “Yes, America tried to rescue us, but instead of spending all those millions of dollars sending ninja commandos and risking countless more lives like it was a Hollywood action movie, wouldn’t it have been safer and wiser to have discussed options for prisoner exchange in the first place?”

The Independent.

Brighton: The day the Grand Hotel was bombed #BrightonBombing

The Grand Hotel in Brighton where five people were killed and 30 injured when an IRA bomb exploded. John ManningThe Grand Hotel in Brighton where five people were killed and 30 injured when an IRA bomb exploded. Photograph: John Manning / The Times

AT 2.54am on October 12, 1984, an explosion echoed across Brighton and Hove. The events of that night would be felt across the western world for years to come. Reporters BEN JAMES and FLORA THOMPSON look back at the biggest news story this city has ever seen.

A MONTH before the deadly terrorist attack a man called Roy Walsh checked into The Grand.

He stayed for four days in room number 629, seemingly doing nothing more than enjoying the tail end of the summer season.

But Mr Walsh was not Mr Walsh. He was Patrick Magee, a provisional IRA activist tasked with murdering the then Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and as many of her cabinet members as possible.

He planted a bomb with a long-delay timer made from video recorder components and a memo park timer safety device – the type seen in egg timers.

It was packed with 20lb of gelignite.

Magee checked out and the 1984 Conservative Party conference checked in.

Security searched the building and sniffer dogs worked their way through the hundreds of rooms.

But despite the caution, the bomb was not discovered.

The Grand Hotel in Brighton following the IRA bomb attack. The photo was taken on the morning of October 12 1984, some hours after the blast.The Grand Hotel in Brighton following the IRA bomb attack. The photo was taken on the morning of October 12 1984, some hours after the blast. Photograph: Wikipedia

It is believed the dogs did not find the device because of the cling film wrapped around it, masking any smell of explosives.

The conference began and the leaders of the country came and went – while all the time the deadly bomb was ticking down.

Then in the early hours of the morning of October 12, a deafening blast blew a hole in the front of the Victorian hotel.

Bricks, debris and glass shot through the air as the midsection of the building collapsed into the basement.

Five were killed and dozens injured. Mrs Thatcher, who was awake at the time working on her conference speech, was unharmed.

She was taken, with her husband Denis, to Brighton Police Station before being taken to a safehouse.

This was the most audacious attack on British democracy since the gunpowder plot. It was a day that those involved would never forget.

Norman Tebbit, the then secretary of state for trade and industry, was asleep in his room with his wife when the bomb went off.

Speaking this week, the now 83-year-old said: “It woke me up and then the chandelier started swinging and ceiling fell in.

“We were covered in debris, we were completely covered – we were pinned down.”

Trapped by bricks and pieces of furniture, it was a number of hours before the emergency services got to the Conservative MP and his wife Margaret, who was left permanently disabled as a result of the blast.

Asked if he was panicking, he said: “What’s the point in panicking. I was just thinking, I hope somebody gets me out before I bleed to death.”

Bomb victim Lord Tebbit, then Britain's Trade and Industry Minister, being lifted from the ruins of the Grand HotelBomb victim Lord Tebbit, then Britain’s Trade and Industry Minister, being lifted from the ruins of the Grand Hotel. Photograph: The Daily Mail

The photograph of Lord Tebbit being carried out of the devastated building is one of the enduring images of the day.

He was taken to Royal Sussex County Hospital where doctors asked if he was allergic to anything. The defiant cabinet minister replied “bombs”.

He was later transferred to Stoke Mandeville Hospital in Buckinghamshire where he remained for several weeks.

Across Brighton and Hove the explosion had woken many and even set off car alarms.

Argus photographer Simon Dack had just got to sleep when he heard the blast.

He said: “I turned to my wife and said it sounded like a car backfiring. She said it sounded like a bomb.

“The next thing I knew I was on the phone to one of our reporters, Phil Mills, who told me that The Grand had been blown up.

“I had been at the hotel earlier that night to have a drink with a few photographers, I couldn’t believe it.

“I got in the car and rushed down. The whole place was lit up with emergency lights. I parked up at the bottom of West Street and just started taking pictures.”

He was met by then Argus reporter Mr Mills who had rushed down with his pyjamas under his clothes.

Mr Mills said: “My wife heard the phone ring and she prodded me in the ribs – it was The Argus newsdesk telling me something that I initially thought was part of a dream: A bomb? At the Grand?

“I threw on clothes over my pyjamas (thinking it was a hoax and that I’d be back in bed in an hour) but as I drove into town and saw a convoy of emergency vehicles speeding past me I realised this was real.”

Former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and her husband Denis on October 12 1984Former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and her husband Denis on October 12 1984. Photograph: The Telegraph

He met up with Mr Dack and fellow Argus reporter Jon Buss before splitting up to speak to whoever was in a state to answer.

“I followed the trail of masonry that had snapped off a flagpole on the opposite side of the road to the hotel and met a couple who had been sitting on the beach. The young man said: ‘Bit of the pole and brick flew over our heads – the explosion was deafening’.

“The then education secretary Sir Keith Joseph was in total shock in his silk dressing gown, in the lobby of the nearby Metropole Hotel: His answers were mumbled and jumbled. Nigel Lawson (in his pyjamas) was more coherent. All were in a state of disbelief.”

Mr Mills was one of the first on the scene and just minutes after arriving he had started filing his copy back to the Argus office.

But not all the journalists at the conference had been as quick off the mark.

He said: “I was sending copy from the lobby of the Old Ship when another pyjama-clad man exited from the lift and demanded receptionists tell him what was going on. He was the Washington Post reporter who had slept through the explosion and the first he knew anything was when his phone rang – it was his newsdesk asking when he would be filing copy.”

Mr Dack added: “It was the biggest story in the country for a long time and the biggest ever in Brighton. But at the time it didn’t seem like that. There were all these rumours flying around about who was dead and who wasn’t.

The 30th anniversary of the Brighton bombing will be marked by peace campaigners, political activists and academic scholars.The 30th anniversary of the Brighton bombing will be marked by peace campaigners, political activists and academic scholars. Photograph: The Belfast Telegraph

“I was just worrying about taking pictures. My biggest concern strangely was getting the pictures back to the office. We would have to get to a phonebox and call in a despatch rider to take them. I was there all night and the next day just taking pictures.

“I don’t think I went back into the office for a couple of days.”

Jennie Dack, Mr Dack’s wife, had her own experience of that historic morning.

She was working at Marks & Spencer in Western Road and was called to open up early so the delegates could buy new clothes.

She said: “They were wandering around in their pyjamas all looking like ghosts. They were covered in dust and were clearly shocked at what had happened.

“It was a very surreal experience and a very strange atmosphere.”

Five had been killed. Eric Taylor, North West area chairman of the Conservative Party, Lady Jeanne Shattock, wife of Gordon Shattock, western area chairman of the Conservative Party, Lady Muriel Maclean, wife of Sir Donald Maclean, president of the Scottish Conservatives and Roberta Wakeham, wife of Parliamentary treasury secretary John Wakeham.

Perhaps the most high profile to be killed was Sir Anthony Berry, then MP for Southgate. The 59-year-old was with his wife, who was badly injured.

His daughter was in London staying with her sister and remembers the moment she turned on the TV news that morning.

She said: “These were the days before mobile phones so we were waiting around for information.

“We didn’t really know what had happened or if he was there or not. We were just hoping for the best.”

It was several hours before they received any news, and when they did it was the news they had dreaded.

The fire brigade shine a light on the bomb blast in The Grand Hotel Brighton in 1984.The fire brigade shine a light on the bomb blast in The Grand Hotel Brighton in 1984. Photograph: ALAMY

She said: “We got a call in the afternoon and told his body had been identified.

“I was 27 at the time and it changed my life forever, we were all devastated.

“I remember this feeling of disbelief, it was so hard to take in.

“Shortly after his death I got a letter from him. I had been living in India and the letter had gone out and then come back. When I opened it I forget for a minute that he had gone.

“It was a very difficult time, just a few months before my uncle had killed himself and then this.

“Everyone rallied round and I remember us trying to be strong at the funeral. We wanted it to be a small event so Margaret Thatcher didn’t come.

“Princess Diana, (Sir Anthony was her uncle) was also there. I remember her coming up to me and saying what a fantastic man my father was and how she was so sorry.”

Despite the utter devastation, Ms Berry decided something positive had to come from the death, fear and destruction.

Patrick Magee was convicted for five counts of murder and told he would serve 35 years minimum.

However, he was released having served just 14 under the terms of the Good Friday Agreement.

Shortly after his release, in November 2000, Ms Berry met with her father’s killer – sparking criticism from some families of victims of IRA attacks.

They went on to meet a number of times over the following months and a documentary about the meeting was broadcast in December 2001.

The Grand Hotel on the night of the bombing in 1984.The Grand Hotel on the night of the bombing in 1984. Photograph: The Argus

She now speaks around the world on the topic of peace building and reconciliation and has launched her own foundation, Building Bridges for Peace.

She will appear with Mr Magee at an event at the Old Market Theatre, Hove, on Sunday.

She added: “Just days after I decided I had to do something positive. I am proud of what I’ve done but I still feel like I need to do more.”

Ms Berry added: “I would say he is a friend (Magee). It is an unusual friendship but I care about him.

“I am always going to be against any violence but if I understand why he, and others, chose to use violence then that can help me to look at how we can make the world a place where people are less likely to use violence.

“Forgiveness is such a difficult word. But he is my friend now. We spend a lot of time together.”

She added: “He regards me as a friend. He knows that my dad was a wonderful human being and he knows that some of the qualities I have came from my father and that weighs heavily on him.”

The Grand Hotel in Brighton after the 1984 IRA bomb at the Tory Party conference.The Grand Hotel in Brighton after the 1984 IRA bomb at the Tory Party conference. Photograph: The BBC

Sir Andrew Bowden breaks his silence…

UNTIL now the then Brighton Kemptown MP Sir Andrew Bowden had kept silent about his experiences that historic morning.

Now, on the 30th anniversary of the attack, he speaks exclusively to The Argus about how he rushed to the aid of Margaret Thatcher.

He said: “It is an evening of my life which is seared into my mind. I have deliberately held back from speaking about this because I did not feel it was appropriate until now to explain my involvement in the events.

“I do think fate played a part and to some extent it was destiny.”

He said the release last week of the Iron Lady’s private papers by the Margaret Thatcher Archive Trust seemed like a fitting time to share his recollections.

Details of how Baroness Thatcher calmly took time to personally cancel a hair appointment at a Hove salon were among the revelations published about her actions after the bombing.

Sir Andrew, 84, who now lives in Ovingdean, said it was “fate” he was not in The Grand at the time of the bomb.

“I left at about 1am and walked home – I lived not far away in Sussex Square at the time.

“My wife was still awake when I got in and we chatted about the evening’s events before going to bed.

“And it was not long before we heard a deep boom, like thunder. We thought ‘what the devil was that?’ and ten minutes later the phone rang.”

A senior police officer told him an attempt had been made on the Prime Minister’s life. He was summoned to her side as she took shelter at Brighton police station.

Sir Andrew said: “I threw on my clothes and dashed down to the Edward’s Street station where I was taken straight into the chief superintendent’s office. She was there, sitting in the chief superintendent’s chair and surrounded by chief constables and senior officers.

“I rushed over to say ‘Prime Minister I am so sorry’ and she immediately said ‘Andrew, I am alright’ which amazed me.”

He added: “I had been involved in the security in the run up to the visit and we had identified a number of safe houses in the area, a couple in Brighton, one in Lewes and one in Rottingdean.

“The officers and I were debating the best place to move her and I saw she was beginning to get irritated.

“She was tapping her fingers on the desk and suddenly banged her hand down and said, ‘Gentlemen, I have sat here listening to this discussion for some time and a decision needs to be made. I do not mind where you take me but there is one clear instruction. You must have me back at the conference centre by 9am. Is that understood?’.

“She showed remarkable courage.”

The Grand Hotel Brighton as it is today.The Grand Hotel Brighton as it is today.

The Argus (Brighton).

How #London’s 2020 #Tube trains were designed

The £2 billion subway cars will replace trains on the Piccadilly, Central, Waterloo, and City and Bakerville lines, and are aimed at accommodating London’s booming commuter population for the next several decadesThe £2 billion subway cars will replace trains on the Piccadilly, Central, Waterloo, and City and Bakerville lines, and are aimed at accommodating London’s booming commuter population for the next several decades Priestmangoode

Margaret Rhodes reporting,

Descend underground into London’s subway system, and “Mind the Gap” is everywhere. It’s spelled out in tiles on the edge of the platform, it’s announced through the loudspeakers, and it’s probably splashed across a tourist’s t-shirt. But sometime around 2020, the actual gap — the dangerous space between the train and the platform that prompted the transit system in 1969 to start warning passengers — will begin to disappear.

Getting rid of the gap is one of several efficiencies that design firm PriestmanGoode will introduce in its redesign of the London Underground trains. Announced this week, the estimated $4 billion (£2 billion) trains (part of a bigger $25 billion (£16 billion) upgrade) will replace trains on the Piccadilly, Central, Bakerloo, and Waterloo & City lines, and are aimed at accommodating London’s booming commuter population for the next several decades. “London may well go up again twice in size, so you have to think about how these trains will evolve,” says Paul Priestman, director at PriestmanGoode. “We can’t change tunnels and platforms and stations, so how can we let people get on and off the trains more quickly?”

New Tube for London designed by PriestmanGoode.

Clever Details

To delete the gap, PriestmanGoode drafted up trains that have shorter carriages and more of them. This gives each train extra sets of joints, so it can pivot and nestle itself closer to the platform. That leads to swifter train exits for passengers. Each train will also sport larger doors (and more of them as well) to help relieve the bottleneck of commuters getting on and off at every station. The effect is similar to the shiny AirTran system used at airports.

This wouldn’t have been possible when the original cars were built: newer access to stronger, lightweight materials like aluminium and finishes used on aircrafts means that the bigger doors won’t cause subway cars to grow weak and buckle. In an attempt to cut down on delays, they’re also proposing to amp up the communications system with flashing lights that warn commuters when doors open and close. Hopefully, the idea goes, this will stop desperate passengers from shoving doors back open.

Inside, poles tilt outwards to create more breathing room around passengers' faces and upper bodiesInside, poles tilt outwards to create more breathing room around passengers’ faces and upper bodies Priestmangoode

Given all the exterior glitz, much remains the same inside the new tube cars. “Familiar is good, it’s moving forward and is still recognisable,” Priestman says. Besides the fact that the London Underground required the same number of seats, Priestman wanted to preserve a detail that’s unique to the Tube: “It’s interesting that it’s possible to have fabric, and they last,” he says of the upholstered seats, which would never fly in a city like New York. “It says a lot about the character of the design. It’s not like a jail, people have respect for it, the lighting is right. Even in Hong Kong you have steel seats on the metros.”

To keep to the thesis — make the trains as efficient as possible — PriestmanGoode adjusted the floor-to-ceiling handrails so they tilt slightly outward, away from people’s heads and upper bodies, freeing up valuable (and literal) breathing room. An even bigger change is how the cars connect: instead of disjointed carriages, these will be “through-cars” that allow for commuters to safely and easily disperse themselves, even after the train takes off.

All told, the London Underground estimates that PriestmanGoode’s trains will allow for anywhere between 25 and 60 percent more passengers, depending on the line. “We need every square inch for the passengers,” Priestman says. With these changes, “it’s almost like getting grit out of the system.”

Wired UK.


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